This is a re-post of something I was invited to write to sum-up my experiences at OKCon 2011. The original post can be viewed here on the official OKFN Open Science blog. For some reason the Prezi embed code at the bottom didn’t work, but does here on my blog
Many thanks to Jenny Molloy for inviting me to write the post, and Maria Neicu for editing it.
A couple of months ago, I gave a talk at the Open Knowledge Conference 2011, on ‘Open Palaeontology’ – based upon 18 months experience as a lowly PhD student trying, and mostly failing to get usable digital data from palaeontological research papers. As you might well have inferred already from that last sentence; it’s been an interesting ride.
The main point of my talk was the sheer stupidity/naivety of the way in which data is supplied (or in some cases, not at all!) with or within research papers. Effective science operates through the accumulation of knowledge and data, all advances are incremental and build upon the work of others – the Panton Principles probably sum it up far better than I could. Any such barriers to the accumulation of knowledge/data therefore impede the progress of science.
Whilst there are numerous barriers to academic research – access to research papers being perhaps the most well-known and well-publicised; the issue that most aggravates me, is not access to these papers, but the actual papers themselves – in the context of the 21st century (I’m thinking the Internet Age here…), they are only barely adequate (at best) for communicating research data and this is a major problem for the future legacy of our published work… and my research project.
My PhD thesis title is quite broad: ‘The Importance of Fossils in Phylogeny’. Given this title and (wide)scope, I need to look at a lot of papers, in a lot of different journals, and extract data from these articles to re-analyse; to assess the importance of fossils in phylogeny; on a meta-scale. There are long established data formats for the particular type of data I wish to extract. So well established and easy to understand there’s even a Wikipedia page here describing the most commonly used data format (nexus). There exist multiple databases set aside specifically to host this type of data e.g. TreeBASE and MorphoBank. Yet despite all this standardisation and provisioning for paleomorphological phylogenetic data – far less than 1% of all data published on, is actually readily-available in a standardised, digital, usable format.
In most cases the data is there; you just have to dig very very hard to release it from the pdf file it’s usually buried in (and then spend unnecessary and copious amounts of time, manually reformatting and validating it). See the picture below for a typical example (and yes, it is sadly printed sideways, this is a common and silly practice that publishers use to inappropriately squeeze data matrices into papers):
I hope you’ll agree with me that this is clearly absurd and hugely inefficient. As I explain in my presentation (slides at the bottom of this post) the data, as originially analysed/used, comes in a much richer, more usable, digital, Standardised format. Yet when published it gets stripped of all useful metadata and converted into a flat, inextricable and significantly obfuscated table. Why? It’s my belief this practise is a lazy unwanted vestigial hangover from the days of paper-based (only) publishing, in which this might have been the only way in which to convey the data with the paper. But in 2011, I can confidently say that the vast majority of researchers read and the use the digital versions of research papers – so why not make full and proper use of the digital format to aid scientific communication? I argue, not to axe paper copies. But to make sure that digital versions are more than just plain pdf versions of the paper copy, as they can and should IMO be.
With this goal in mind, I set about writing an Open Letter to the rest of my research community to explain why we need to richly-digitise our published research data ASAP. Naturally, I wouldn’t get very far just by myself, so I enlisted the support of a variety of academic friends via Facebook, and (inspired by OKFN pads I’d seen) we concocted a draft letter together using an Etherpad. The result of this was a fairly basic Drupal-based website that we launched http://supportpalaeodataarchiving.co.uk/ and disseminated via mailing lists, Twitter, Academia.edu as far and wide as we possibly could, *hoping* just hoping, that our fellow academics would read, take note and support our cause.
Surprisingly, it worked to an extent and a lot of big names in Palaeontology signed our Open Letter in support of our cause; then things got even better when a Nature journalist (Ewen Callaway) got interested in our campaign and wrote an article for Nature News about it, which can be found here. A huge thanks must go to everyone who helped out with the campaign, it’s generated truly International support, as can be demonstrated on the map below:
(you might have to zoom out a bit. For some reason it zooms into Africa by default )
View Open Letter Signatures in a larger map
It’s far too soon to know the true impact of the campaign. Journal editorial boards can be very slow to change their editorial policies, especially if it requires a modicum of extra effort on the part of the publisher. Additionally, once editorial policy does change at a journal, it can only apply to articles submitted from henceforth and thus articles already in the submission pipeline don’t get affected by any new guidelines. It’s not uncommon for delays of a year between submission and publishing in palaeontology, so for this and other reasons, I’m not expecting to see visible change until 2012, but I think we might have helped get the ball rolling, if nothing else…
The Paleontological Society journals (Paleobiology and Journal of Paleontology) have recently adopted mandatory data submission to the Dryad repository, and the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology has also improved their editorial policy with respect to certain types of data, but these are just a few of many many journals that publish palaeontological articles. I’m very much hoping that other journals will follow suit in the next few months and years by taking steps to improve the way in which research data is communicated, for the good of everyone; authors, publishers, funders and readers.
Anyway, here’s the Prezi I used to convey some of that (and more) at OKCon 2011. Huge thanks to the conference organisers for inviting me to give this talk. It was the most professionally run conference I’ve ever been to, by far. Great food, excellent WiFi provisioning, good comms, superb accommodation… I could go on. If the conference is on next year – I’ll be there for sure!
Doing some information research ahead of my imminent OKCon 2011, Berlin talk, it’s come to my attention that the Open Access journal PLoS ONE is actually an excellent journal to publish in, with respect to Impact Factor.
In the Digital Age, journals are merely vessels in which we can publish our research. Aside from the prestige of the huge, well-established journals like Nature and Science, there’s not all that much difference between the other journals. Sure, there’s cost to think about, perceived quality of peer-review, length of time it takes to get from submission to being printed, and a few other factors but really – it’s impact (this is not necessarily best measured by the Impact Factor metric, as Bjorn Brembs often points out) that for me at least, is the most important.
If the PLoS ONE Paleontology Collection was a journal it would have a 2010 Impact Factor of 4.15 which would make it the #1 Paleontology-specific journal (vs 2009 JCR ‘Paleontology’ journal scores). But it’s not a journal so perhaps the comparison is an unfair one. Likewise I’m sure if one collected together Nature palaeontological articles and treated them as a ‘journal’ that ‘Nature Palaeontology’ pseudo-journal would have a massive Impact Factor.
Here’s my calculations (numbers listed in the order that the publications are in my personal online CUL library, linked to below):
Cites in 2010 to items published in: 2009 = 3 + 6 + 6 + 1 + 1 + 0 + 2 + 1 + 3 + 5 + 6 + 0 + 2 + 5 + 3 + 2 + 5 + 5 + 2 + 4 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 12 = 81
Cites in 2010 to items published in: 2008 = 0 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 4 + 10 + 4 + 3 + 6 + 0 + 5 + 8 + 15 + 8 = 85
Number of items published in: 2009 = 24 link to bibliography
Number of items published in: 2008 = 16 link to bibliography
Calculation: IF = (Cites to recent items / Number of recent items) = (81+85) / (24+16) = 4.15
Of course Thomson-Reuters official JCR probably doesn’t count citations from journals such as “Caminhos de Geografia” and Google Scholar (which I used because it’s much quicker/easier/Open than WoK) doesn’t always provide the correct year metadata for each article. But still, as a rough estimate I think this is quite impressive. Well done PLoS!
The task now, is to convince fellow palaeontologists that it’s worth publishing here.
Every day I get hugely frustrated that I can’t access articles published in otherwise excellent journals such as Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, and Zootaxa.
These journals and authors who publish in this Closed manner aren’t doing themselves any favours IMO. What’s the point of publishing research if only a very select few people can read it?
Sure, granted many palaeontologists will happily send you a pdf if you ask for one either directly via email or on a mailing list such as VRTPALEO but those routes don’t always work…
Whether it be ‘Gold’ Open Access, or ‘Green’ Open Access it’s a simple matter of logic that Open Access is beneficial for authors and readers alike.